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Aristolochia as an alexipharmic in Dayak Tribes of Kalimantan

Morris (1887) wrote Aristolochia plants have been a well-known traditional medicine to cure snake-bite. The remarkable properties of the plant spread in almost all continents, but mainly practiced in Asia. The inhabitants of "new world" (red Indians) used extracts of various Aristolochia species as antidote to snake and spider bites. Similarly to other parts of the world, Dayak ethnics relied on Aristolochia plants as their main antidotes.
Dayak ethnics spread across Kalimantan (Borneo) island and considered as one of the oldest native tribes. The island is now separated into three countries, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Brunei Darussalam. There are strong connections between each of Dayak tribes, for example the use of traditional medicines from the surrounding forest. Punan tribe lives in Malinau, nothern part of East Kalimantan, which belongs to Indonesia. Kadazan and Murut tribes live in Malaysian part, at the southern part of Sabah, near the boundary to Indonesia. Kulip (2…